Foot-And-Mouth Disease (FMD)

1. Description:

FMD is one of the most contagious animal diseases, with clinical economic losses. It has low mortality rate in adult animals, but often high in the young due to myocarditis.

2. Etiology:

FMD is caused by a virus of the family Picornaviridae, called genus Aphthovirus. There are seven immunologically distinct stereotypes: A, O, C, SAT 1, SAT 2, SAT 3 and ASIA 1 which do not confer cross immunity.

3. Diagnosis:

  • The virus is usually cultivated in swine kidney cells. The virus can remain infective for 20 weeks on straw, is rapidly destroyed in meat, but may persist for up to 6 months in bone marrow and 4-5 months in lymph nodes.
  • Incubation period is from 2-7 days; disease severity depends on the strain of the virus as well as swine’s well-being.
  • The infected gets fever below 41oC. Small, succulent blisters appear on the mouth, tongue and between the nails and nipples. These break open into red sores and then turn gray and cover with white plaque. The infected usually has difficulty in eating and walking.
  • Mortality rate in adult is ranging from 5 – 7% and up to 50% in younger one.

4. Prevention:

Basic biosecurity:

  • Basic biosecurity measures are important in helping to minimize the spread of disease. The following procedures could help to reduce the risk:
  • Standardize the herd movements and keep to an absolute minimum.
  • People and vehicles are a potential source of potential contamination.
  • Only allow essential visitors on to the farm and provide your own boots and clothing at the entrance.
  • Ensure that visitors’ hands are washed.
  • Limit the movement of people between buildings as much as possible.
  • Place foot dips at all entrances, service and feed delivery points. Use an approved disinfectant at the correct dilution.
  • Review all cleaning and disinfection procedures. Only allow cleaned and disinfected vehicles to visit your farm.
  • Adopt special precautions at loading ramps. Provide designated boots and overalls for use on the loading ramp only. Disinfect all loading areas before and after use. 
  • Clean all pens thoroughly.


  • Vaccinate in accordance to manufacturers’ instruction.
  • Vaccinate pigs with strains that are compatible with local strains.
  • Zoning the outbreak, try to limit the amount of transporting and travelling across the outbreak zone.
  • Strict control and hygiene to limit the spread of the disease.
  • Since FMD is largely a winter disease, vaccination should be carried out in the autumn.

Preventive measures:

  • Isolate the infected and appoint a designated caregiver to give treatment.
  • Disinfected wounds, ulcers, broken pimples,… with antiseptic.

Select from the following feed additives/supplements to natural enhance the herd’s well-being and natural resistance:

5. Treatment:

In an acute outbreak examine the at-risk group three times daily to identify disease as early as possible. Administer on of the following injectable solution to prevent superinfection or secondary infection:

SANFO.GENTAMAX: 1 – 2 ml/ 50 kg of b.w, administer once a day for 3 – 5 days consecutively.

SANFOTRIL: 0,5 – 1 ml / 20 kg of b.w, administer once a day for 3 – 5 days consecutively.

It is recommended to combine recommended antibiotic with adjuvant injectable to enhance natural resistance and stimulate hemostasis.

To enhance natural resistance

To relieve pain

To stimulate hemostasis

Know-How, Swine